Obj 2-Chemical Bond & its Characteristics

Chem Bonds =divided into two (Intramolecule / Intermolecule)

  • Intramolecular bond

Polar covalent bond [Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.]

1) Covalent

– a bond between non metal + non metal                                                                         by sharing electron to achieve stable electronic configuration

– electron shared = no of bonds

– < 1.7 difference electronegativity (less ionic)

  • Polar = when atom is more electronegative than another
  • Non-polar = when electron equally shared

2) Ionic (electrostatic forces)

– a bond between metal (low e) + non metal (high e)                                                  by electron transfer

– > 1.7 difference electronegativity (more ionic)

– cation (+ ion) / anion (- ion)

3) Metallic

– a bond between metal + metal in crystal lattice

– have low ionization energy                                                                                                (so electron move around n act as cement that hold metal ions)

– lustrous / malleable / ductile

  • Intermolecular Bond

1) Hydrogen bond

– electrostatic attraction between an electronegative atom (O / N)                             + a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to 2nd electronegative atom

– increase electronegativity of atom bounded to hydrogen = increase bond strength

-can be either intermolecular o intramolecular

2) Van der Waals

-short-range forces / between molecules or parts of molecules / where atoms attract when they are at certain distance / and repel when the atoms approach (tendency to maintain distance)

-more significant when (increase pressure / decrease temperature)

3)Hydrophobic Attraction / Interaction (Molecule – Ion Interaction)

-Interaction / between non-polar side chain molecule / and other non-polar side chain molecule / which tend to aggregate minimizing surface area exposed to water (to avoid water molecules) / allowing these molecules to associate with each other in aqueous environment


Obj 1-General Atomic Structure & Formation Molecules from Atoms

Basic Info about Atoms

Matter = Volume x Mass

Atoms = Nucleus (Protons + Neutrons) + Electrons

Atomic No = no Protons = no Electrons

Nuclear No= no Protons + Neutrons

Volume of Atoms = Volume Electrons’  Shell

Mass of Atoms = Mass Protons + Neutrons

Isotopes = Atoms of same no Protons & Electrons but differ in No Neutrons

Molecule = 2 or more atoms linked by chem bond

Element = Similar atoms in one molecule

Compounds = Differents atoms in one molecule

Energy Level = electron state of potential energy

= evolve around nucleus

= determine atomic properties

= absorption energy cause electrons move to higher level

= can be transferred (carrying energy) > REDOX REACTIONS

Bonds = achieved stability when outermost energy level has 8 electrons

= by electrons’  loss & gain (ionic) / share (covalent)

= contain energy & require energy to form or be broken

=bond energy (as kcal/mole) = energy needed to break a bond

= H-H (436 )  /  C-H (414)  /  C-C (343)  /  C-O (351)

H , O , C , N make up 99+% of atoms in human body

= O (63%)   /   H (25.2%)   /   C (9.5%)   /   N (1.4%)

Q- What property unites H,O,C,N and renders these atoms so appropriate to the chemistry of life

A-Their ability to form covalent bonds by electron-pair sharing

S1/Case 1 – The Chemistry of Life


1-Know general structure of an atom and how molecules form from atoms

2-Understand the nature of chemical bonds and their characteristics

3-Know the structure of DNA and be aware that it has three functions :-storage of information / replication / access of information for protein synthesis

4-Understand how RNA structure differs from DNA and be aware that RNA has tagging of amino acids for protein synthesis

5-Understand the concepts and energy requirements of chemical reactions

6-Understand the type of energy and its transformation from one type to another,and its conservation

7-Know the basic structure and function of carbohydates,proteins and lipids

8-Understand ATP as energy currency of the body

9-Understand the formation of hydrogen bonds and its importance of these bonds in biological molecules

10-Know the volume and composition of body fluids

Sem 1 (Foundation of Mansoura Manchester Programme)

Case 1 -Chemistry of Life

Case 2-The Structure of Cells

Case 3-Active & Passive Movement

Case 4-Transcription & Translation

Case 5-Vitamins,Fat & Water

Case 6-Digestion & Absorption

Case 7-Changes in Electrical Activity Caused by Damage

Case 8-Lung Function,Environment & Epidemiology

Case 9-Inherited Traits

Case 10-The Chemistry of Sugar

My Summer Plan

It’s been 2 days after my final 1st year exam…yet i still can’t make out any plan either for my summer holiday o just a quick revision about what i have learned all this one year in Mansoura Manchester Medical Programme….

Well,this draft should do well n ples comment on this…

14 jun – 10 disember  :  118 days

4 sem x 10 cases  :   40 cases

118 / 40  : approx.  3 day for 1 case